Pierre “des Loup Marins” Comeau (1658 – 1740)




Generated with Midjourney, March 2023

Name Pierre
Date of Birth 1658
Place of Birth Port Royal
Date of Marriage 1689
Date of Death 1740
Place of Death Port Royal
Son of
& of
Pierre Comeau
Rose Bayols
Name Jeanne Bourgeois
Date of Birth 1666
Place of Birth Port Royal
Place of Marriage Port Royal
Date of Death 1716-06-10
Place of Death Port Royal
Daughter of
& of
Jacques (1st surgeon in NS)
Jeanne Trahan


Children

Name D.o.b Place of Birth D.o.d Place of Death Date of Marriage Spouse
Pierre Comeau 1690-06-07 Port Royal 1706-07-28 Port Royal    
Anne Comeau 1691 Port Royal 1713    
Françoise Comeau 1692 Port Royal     1709-10-29 Antoine Brun
Jeanne Comeau c. 1698 Port Royal     1705-10-12 Etienne Martin
Francois Comeau 1701 Port Royal 1785 St. Bernard NS 1726
1763
Marie Madelein L'Or
Madeleine Pitre
Marie-Joseph Comeau 1727 Petitcoudiac 1807-06-27 St. Mary's Bay NS c. 1750 Jean-Baptiste Bastarache
Justinien Comeau 1729 Peticoudiac 1825-01-23 Metaghan River 1756-02-17 Natalie Bastarache
Amand Comeau 1730 Petitcoudiac     1752-05-09 Marie Babineau
Salvator Comeau 1738 Petitcoudiac   Belliveau's Cove NS 1760-02-06 Anastasie Beliveau
Jean-Baptiste Comeau 1732 Peticoudiac   Comeauville NS   Marie Rose Robichaud
Joseph Comeau 1740-01-30 Peticoudiac 1840 St. Alphone NS   Marguerite Johnston
Anne-Marie Comeau     1867-03-15   ---------------
1854-02-01
Jean Saulnier
Augustin Guidry
Charles Comeau    
Firmin Comeau 1764-04-01 Port Royal     1784-10-18 Isabelle Dugas
Pierre Comeau 1705-07-27 Port Royal 1707 Port Royal    
Alexandre Comeau 1707 Port Royal 1715 Port Royal    
Madeleine Comeau 1713 Port Royal        
Jeanne Comeau   Port Royal     1715-11-27 Charles Martin

Pierre Comeau le jeune dit Des Loup-Marins was the second son of Pierre Comeau (b. 1597) named Pierre.


https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Comeau-8


The Oath of Allegiance

We find in Stephen A White's entries for Pierre Des Loups Marin & Pierre Esturgeon these notes:

- août 1695 (vieux style): Pierre Comeau le jeune prêt le serment de fidélité au roi d'Angleterre à Port-Royal; it fait sa marque (Mass. Arch. vol II, fol 540). | - Aug 1695 (old style): Pierre Comeau the elder took the oath of allegiance to the King of England at Port-Royal; he made his mark on the document

- août 1695 (vieux style): Pierre Comeau l'aîné pret le serment de fidélité au roi d'Angleterre à Port-Royal; it fait sa marque (Mass. Arch. vol II, fol 540). | - Aug 1695 (old style): Pierre Comeau the younger took the oath of allegiance to the King of England at Port-Royal; he made his mark on the document

Archived in Boston, the document bears the date of August 1695. This document, referenced elsewhere online, shows that some interpret the flourish above the abbreviated "Aug" to read 16, thus August 16 1695; "A list of French at Port Royal to whom Captain Fleetwood Emes Comander of the Sorlings Frigatt gave the Oath of Allegiance". It is archived in a collection of colonial documents from 1695 which also contain a letter from Charles Melanson, dated August 25th 1695, that also mentions Captain Emes:

"Sir, if Captain Emes should come to Port Royal this fall, I humbly beseech your honor to inpower him with a commission to do justice here. For there bee some people that hath been wronged about there land I hope that Captain Emes will right them that hath been wronged for I cannot doe nothing myself having no commission nor orders to shor for Monsieur DeBruil hath gott the Commission & orders from me that Sir William Phipps sent last year having no more at present". (Transcription also on Facebook)
This letter followed one apparently dated August 3rd where Melanson reported "that his Majesty['s] two ships are both here at Port Royal." Thus it is evident that two English ships, one of which was the frigate Sorlings, were moored in the area that August, and during that time, Captain Emes administered another Oath of Allegiance following those applied in 1690.

The Oaths of 1690

In May 1690, Sir William Phipps sailed from Boston on a mission to subjugate the inhabitants of Port Royal. This was documented in a journal1 but also by testimony by Mathieu De Goutin2 (against whom the complaint was made in the 1704 letter below). According to the French version of the events, the citizens were summoned to the church where they were told to swear allegiance or see their homes burned:

Les douze jours que les Ennemis ont esté au Port Royal furent employez a fair venir les habitants des mines [Minas], a faire assembler tous les habitans du Port Royal, et leur ayant assigné un jour ils firent mettre toutes leurs troupes sous les armes et environnerent l'Eglise, et ayant pris tous les noms des habitans, ils dirent qu'il falloit qu'ils prétassent serment de fidelité au Prince d'Orange, et a Marie d'Angleterre, comme roi et reine d'Angleterre, sinon et a fautes de ce quils seroient tous faits prisonniers de guerre et qu'on bruleroit les maison.3 The twelve days that the Enemy stayed in Port Royal were spent to bring the inhabitant of the mines [Minas], to gather all the inhabitants of Port Royal, and in a certain day they gathered their troupes under arms and surrounded the church, and took the names of the habitants, and told them they were to take an oath of fidelity to Prince Orange and Marie of England, as king and queen of England, if not they'd be prisoners of war and their houses would be burnt.

During the tumultuous month while Phipps was in Port Royal, the area was effectively conquered by New England. From this point forward, trade with Boston increased and Acadia would become integrated into the New England economy. This would culminate sixty-five years later in The Deportation, when once again, Acadian men would be gathered into a church to be read a statement by English authorities.

August 1695

On the Massachusetts Archives document there are two signature-marks for two Pierre Comeaus. The settler Pierre Comeau (born circa 1597) was not listed in the census of 1693 so is presumed to have died by this time. The two Pierres are thus Pierre Le Jeune 'dit Loup Marins and Pierre l'Aîné 'dit L'Esturgeon (b. 1653). The oaths also contains the signatures of eldest brother Etienne (b. 1650) and brother Jean (b. 1657).

In his work on the origin on the Comeau name, Jacques A. Comeau wrote about the 1695 oath document, but attributed it to 1690, a mistake that I made myself in researching this, because the 1690 oaths are better documented.

In 1690 on an Oath of Allegiance signed in Port Royal most of the habitants used a cross as mark. Pierre COMMEAU, one of old Pierre’s son wrote “co”. It looks like the mark of an artisan. Could this be Pierre trade mark? Or could it be Pierre himself? He was gone in 1693, but was possibly alive in 1690.

On this document we see four COMEAU, two Pierre, Jean and Etienne. Pierre with the “co” is the first on the right column followed by Emmanuel HEBERT, then comes Jean, my ancestor. The younger Jean is absent, he was living in Riviere aux Canards. Next is Etienne. The other Pierre is seen in the central column, a simple cross. Antoine, decease or gone does not figure on this document. In 1690 there was only 2 adults Pierre COMEAU in Port Royal beside old Pierre, Pierre dit l’Esturgeon and Pierre dit Loup-Marin, both son of Pierre. Most could not sign, they use a cross for the most and in some case an initial. They are mostly from the first generation of Acadian.

As described above, in the central column, one Pierre marked a cross, and in the third column the other Pierre marked what looks like a craftsman's mark. However, it is noted by John M Faragher in A Great and Noble Scheme that Acadians adopted the ideograms of indigenous Mi'kmaq, so this could also be an example of such an ideogram, as can be seen drawn by other signatories:

Inhabitants commonly communicated with their Míkmaw cousins in a composite trade-jargon and some men who could not sign their names used native-style ideograms as personal marks on documents.4
Since the 1704 letter below by a Pierre Comeau is also marked with a cross, it follows that the mid-column Pierre is the same. This site showing scans of the Oath identifies central-column Pierre as Le Jeune / Loups Marins.

Relevant Links for The Oath

Sir William Phipps (1650-1694)

Fleetwood Emes

HMS Sorlings WikipediaThreeDecks.org

Letters of Charles Melanson
1695-08-03 (source) & 1695-08-25 (source)

Scans of photocopies of the Oath from 2008

Scan on Oath FamilySearch.org (verso dated August 1695)

High Resolution of Oath image below (4.5 MB)

Reverse of Oath image below with August 1695 date (4.2 MB)


1,2. Report of the work of the Archives Branch for the year 1912 (Alt link) • Doughty, 1913 (p.54‑63; 67‑73)
3. Testimony of De Goutin, Ibid, p.69-70
4. A Great and Noble Scheme, John Mack Faragher; p.79

Generated with MidJourney in September 2023, depicting the Oath of Allegiance to be signed by 61 men


Les douze jours que les Ennemis ont esté au Port Royal furent employez a fair venir les habitants des mines [Minas], a faire assembler tous les habitans du Port Royal, et leur ayant assigné un jour ils firent mettre toutes leurs troupes sous les armes et environnerent l'Eglise, et ayant pris tous les noms des habitans, ils dirent qu'il falloit qu'ils

prétassent serment de fidelité au Prince d'Orange, et a Marie d'Angleterre, comme roi et reine d'Angleterre, sinon et a fautes de ce quils seroient tous faits prisonniers de guerre et qu'on bruleroit les maison

Report of the work of the Archives Branch for the year 1912


Mark of a Pierre Comeau

Massachusetts Archives Collection, 1695 Acadian Oath of Allegiance, v.2 p. 540. SC1/45X. Massachusetts Archives. Boston, Massachusetts.


The 1704 Letter

Originally found in the French archives of d'Outre-Mer, the letter can also be found on the Canadian Archives website as part of their shared collection. Dated November 25th 1704, and somewhat illegible, it seems to describe that Pierre Comeau, dictating the letter on behalf of himself and others, felt he could lose proprietorship of a quarter of his fruit trees because De Goutin claimed to have made a mistake ... with regards to administration?

As described in the biographical article in Dictionary of Canadian Biopgraphy, when De Goutin arrived in Acadia he soon married "a peasant's daughter" (Jeanne Thibodeau) and fathered twelve children.

Upon his arrival at Port-Royal, de Goutin found himself the busiest official of the colony. As lieutenant general he heard all civil and criminal suits, and those pertaining as well to public order, navigation and trade. As king’s writer he was the subdelegate of the intendant of New France. He administered the king’s accounts, munitions, and supplies, and was inspector of crown works. With such extensive duties it was perhaps inevitable that his performance should give rise to many of the quarrels in which he became embroiled. [...] Though his arrogance and vanity are quite apparent, it would appear nevertheless that he was a capable official. Indeed, his superiors persisted in recognizing this for 22 years. Because one of the functions of effective civil officials was to serve as a restraint upon the otherwise near-absolute power of the governor, it is perhaps as much for this reason, as for his alliances among the inhabitants, that Mathieu de Goutin also enjoyed the confidence of the Acadian peasantry, who had acquired long before a natural distaste for the inflexibility of colonial administration.

Relevant links for The 1704 Letter

M. De Goutin (1660s-1714)

1704 letter found in French archives

Acadie
Le nomme Piere
1704

Monseigneur

Il y a si longtemps que nous sommes dans la souffrance que cela contraint quelques autres habitants comme moy d'avoir recours, avons pour nous plaindre des injustices que monsieur de Gotin nous fait tous les jours, et comme je me trouve
Acadia
The Named Pierre
1704

My Lord

It has been so long since we have been enduring suffering that it compels some other inhabitants, like myself, to have recourse, in order to complain about the injustices that Mr. de Gotin inflicts upon us every day. And as I find myself

* ChatGPT was used to assist in guessing things that were illegible and providing the translation to English (2023-09-18)

intéressé plus que tout autre à me faire perdre le quart de mon bien, je m'adresse à vous, monseigneur, pour vous demander votre protection, afin que mon dit sieur de Gotin ne me ruine entièrement en détruisant une semblance qu'il a donnée lui-même, dont je vous ai envoyé la copie laquelle il annule, parce que, dit-il, il serait trompé, mais il lui tient bien de l'apparence que cet endroit a coûté que ma partie lui a donné des beaux arbres fruitiers parce qu'en ce pays il pâtit d'autres pertes puisque d'autre part il ne serait pas possible qu'il voulût détruire ce qu'il a fait lui-même. On me saucur dans le temps qu'il a rendu la dite sentence, dont ma partie m'a assuré point cela rendrait appellent, j'espère, mon seigneur, que vous donnerez vos ordres afin que je me sois peint en reyne pour cette mittente testament de ce beaucoup par la conquête de ce procès qu'il a su mener depuis longtemps, acqui me soit perdu de vos bontés infinies pour venir répondre à des audiences --- fréquentes de sans autre nécessité que de me faire de la peine. Je demande à votre grandeur de me découvrir je serai obligé de prier le seigneur pour votre considération présente et santé enfin avec un véritable dévouement votre très obéissant serviteur Pierre Comeau.

monseigneur du port royal le 25e de novembre 1704
more involved than any other in the risk of losing a quarter of my property, I turn to you, my Lord, to request your protection, so that the said Mr. de Gotin does not completely ruin me by destroying an appearance that he himself gave, of which I sent you the copy that he annulled, because, he says, he was mistaken, but he holds fast to the appearance that this place has cost, that my party gave him beautiful fruit trees because in this region he suffers losses elsewhere, since on the other hand it would not be possible for him to want to destroy what he himself has done. They comfort me in the time when he rendered the said sentence, of which my party assured me it would not render appellate. I hope, my Lord, that you will give your orders so that I may be painted queen for this testament of mine, greatly conquered by the pursuit of this lawsuit that he has been leading for a long time, which may cause me to lose your infinite kindness to come and respond to audiences --- frequently, without any other necessity than to cause me pain. I ask your Highness to reveal to me, I will be obliged to pray to the Lord for your present consideration and health, finally with a true devotion, your very obedient servant, Pierre Comeau

My lord of Port Royal
the 25th of November 1704